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DIARRHOEA



DEFINITION: Strictly the term diarrhoea involves:



          1. an unformed faeces


         2. an increase in frequency


         3. an increase in volume



If your dog is only passing soft faeces once or twice a day, although abnormal it is strictly not diarrhoea but merely looseness of the bowel.



What causes diarrhoea?



Diarrhoea is not a disease; rather, it is a sign of many different diseases.  Many mild cases of diarrhoea can be resolved quickly with simple treatments.  Others are the result of fatal illnesses, such as cancer.  Even diarrhoea caused by mild illnesses may become fatal if treatment is not begun early enough to prevent severe fluid and nutrient losses.



How serious is diarrhoea in dogs?



We attempt to determine how sick the dog has become as a consequence of the diarrhoea.  When the dog is systemically ill (i.e., more than one body system is involved), some of the following may be noted:



          Vomiting


         Dehydration


         Loss of appetite


         Abdominal pain


         High fever


         Lethargy


         Bloody and/or watery diarrhoea



What types of tests are performed to find the cause?



If diarrhoea is associated with several of the above signs, we perform a series of tests in the hope that a diagnosis can be made.  This permits more specific treatment.  Diagnostic tests may include radiography (x-rays) with or without barium, blood tests, bacteriological cultures, biopsies of the intestinal tract, and exploratory abdominal surgery.  Once the diagnosis is known, treatment may include special medications and/or diets, or surgery.



If your dog does not appear systemically ill from diarrhoea, the cause may be less serious.  Some of the minor causes of diarrhoea include stomach or intestinal bacteria or viruses, intestinal parasites, and dietary indiscretions (such as eating garbage or other offensive or irritating materials).  A minimum number of tests are performed to rule out certain parasites and infections.  These cases may be treated with drugs to control the motility of the intestinal tract, drugs that relieve inflammation in the intestinal tract, and, often, a special diet for a few days.  This approach allows the body's healing mechanisms to correct the problem.  We expect improvement within 2-4 days; if this does not occur, a change in medication or further tests are done to better understand the problem.  Please keep us informed of any lack of expected improvement so that we may manage the situation properly.